National Institute for Research and Development in Electrical Engineering ICPE-CA






Research Areas of the Magnetic Material Group:
I) Hard magnetic materials

• Researches for Reducing /Replacing Deficient Elements (Rare Earths, Co, etc.)
• Improving the magnetic properties of classical magnets through new additions /structural changes
• new magnets with spin interaction (other than those of NdFeB)
• emerging technologies for the recovery of magnets from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE)
• new applications in the field of electric motors, generators, medical devices, magnetic sensors and transducers, home appliances
II) soft magnetic materials
• Research-Development of new micro /nano structured magnetic materials or amorphous alloys
• Research and Development of new soft magnetic materials in the form of micro /nano powders usable in the additive manufacturing
• new applications of soft magnetic materials in electrical machines, transformers, motors, generators, alternators, inductors, relays, switches, antennas or filters, medical applications, etc.
• making magnetic powders (micro /nanostructured or amorphous)
• making permanent AlNiCo or NdFeB magnets
• magnetizing permanent magnets
• magnetic /metallic material discharge
• making of ferromagnetic /metal coated glass with microfire
• designing /simulation of magnetic circuits
• design and /or design of magnetic circuits for various applications
• characterization of materials in terms of magnetic properties
• magnetization of magnetic powders in magnetic field
• thermal treatments in controlled atmosphere and thermal treatments in magnetic field
• making fluorescent powders
• production and casting of non-ferrous alloys
• production and casting of metallic alloys in a controlled atmosphere
• climatic tests (temperature range - 40 - +180 ° C relative humidity 10-99% RH for temperatures above 200 ° C)
• training, guidance and experimental research for undergraduate, masters and doctoral studies


1. Developing new types of high voltage /high power pulse generators for various applications, including:
- Production of carbon /metal nanoparticles by plasma discharges, including exploding wires;
- Selective fragmentation of conglomerates
- production of high-intensity transient magnetic fields;
- electromagnetic propulsion;
- Particle accelerators.
2. Diversification of the test protocol (contracts with third parties) at high voltage, respectively intensive currents (metal oxide extractors and varistors)

EMC Laboratory
Developed applications for electromagnetic compatibility /shielding and high frequency in the following areas:
- study of the reflection and absorption of electromagnetic radiation on extended frequency range (kHz - GHz) for different materials (conductive, carbonic, magnetic, ceramic);
- high frequency and high power sources for cold plasma generation;
- immunity and emissivity measurements for electrical /electronic equipment;
- Shielded enclosure characterizations
- antenna characterizations and applications;
- Determination of dielectric permits, tangent of loss angle, magnetic permeability in the frequency range 40 Hz to 30 MHz;
- determination of surface resistivity, volume resistivity;
- THz reflectivity spectroscopy; THz transmission spectroscopy.



• Industrial research and experimental development in the field of realization and characterization of composite and polymeric metallic materials and components for various applications in electrical engineering, energy, radiochemistry, automotive and aviation industry, medicine, etc .;
Ø Metallic conductive and sintered composite materials for industrial applications (eg switching in air and vacuum);
Ø Metallic materials for advanced structural applications;
Ø Advanced metallic and polymeric multifunctional materials;
Ø Porous metallic materials with isotropy /anisotropy of the pore distribution;
Ø Hydrogen storage materials;
Ø Heavy alloys sintered with various applications;
Ø Other functional metallic materials;
Ø Polymeric composites for various applications;
Ø Modern fabrication technologies for obtaining materials and metal products;
Ø Modern fabrication technologies for obtaining polymer composites and components made from them;
Ø Waste recovery technologies;
Ø Original recycling processes for waste;
Ø Elemental and composite micro and nanocrystalline composite powders;
Ø Unconventional methods for obtaining micro and nanocrystalline powders;
Ø New, unconventional methods of obtaining materials or modifying materials to improve their properties;
Ø New methods of investigation and analysis of materials, including the design and development of appropriate equipment, based on luminescent phenomena or other physico-chemical effects;
Ø Diagnosis of polymer material degradation and lifetime assessments under different request conditions.
• Interdisciplinary research in the field of composite and polymeric metallic materials;
Ø Functionalization of surfaces with thin films or coatings;
Ø Interface properties study;
Ø Core-shell composites;
Ø Researches in the field of obtaining 2D materials;
Ø Development of elemental, core-shell and composite powders for additive technologies applications;
• Developing research on obtaining and modifying materials to improve properties, analysis techniques based on the investigation of luminescent phenomena, physico-chemical characterization of materials through various analysis techniques, degradation diagnosis and lifetime assessment under the influence of environmental factors (UV , ionizing radiation), etc.
• Developing practical applications and integrating materials into products;
• Applied research correlated with the implementation in the economic domains and production of products (experimental lots and prototypes) at the request of the industrial companies by employing direct production contracts on small and medium scale.


• Developing new advanced materials and eco-nano /microtechnologies and continuing the current research activities in the field of micro and nano composite metal materials for practical applications in various fields;
• Continuing the current research activities in the field of degradation and stabilization of the polymeric materials under the influence of different environmental factors; obtaining new materials with properties improved by the use of ionizing radiation; testing and characterization of materials (in particular polymeric);
• Development of materials and their qualification for applications in nuclear environments (nuclear power plants, particle accelerators);
• Opening of new research directions on obtaining nanostructures such as metal nanoparticles (Ag, Cu, Au, Fe3O4, ZnO, sa), bimetallic alloys, core-shell structures by means of ionizing radiation as a fast, economical, environmentally friendly ) to conventional methods of synthesis. These structures have various applications in optoelectronics, sensory, biomedicine, cultural heritage preservation, photovoltaic cells, hydrogen storage, etc.
• Developing micro /nano composites with improved performance by modifying surface properties and investigating materials through tribocorporation;
• Development of new composite electro /chemical nanoparticles doped with graphs and validation of emerging technologies for their realization;
• Developing conductive polymers through emerging technologies;
• Development of new hybrid carbon-ceramic nanomaterials (graphite-semiconductor) and carbon-metal (graphite-nanoparticles metallic) by emerging technologies;
• Development of new metal /ceramic hybrid composite micro /nano materials;
• Development of new metallic micro /nano materials and spherical metallic ceramic composite materials for applications in additive manufacturing;
• Developing super alloys through emerging technologies;
• Applied research through theoretical and experimental studies to develop new materials, composites and hybrid materials;
• Development of elemental, core-shell and composite powders for additive technologies applications;
• Researches in the field of obtaining 1D and 2D materials;
• Developing new environmental technologies for obtaining materials;
• Investigation of radio-induced processes and development of new applications based on the use of ionizing radiation;
• Research of new polymeric materials and technical solutions based on them for technologies and microtechnologies in the field of electrotechnics and related fields;
• Deepen knowledge in the field of degradation and stabilization of polymeric materials under the influence of different application factors and the assessment of the lifetime and residual life of insulating materials under different conditions;
• Obtaining and characterization of stabilizers for polymeric materials;
• Improvement of methods of analysis and development of new methods, suitable for the characterization of advanced materials made in the laboratory and its department for third-party beneficiaries.



• Chemical synthesis of colloidal suspensions and metal /ceramic, metal-carbonic and metal-polymeric micro /nanopowders and metal-polymeric composites;
• The development of new composite metallic materials of electrical contact for low, medium and high voltage switchgear;
• Development of metal-carbon, metal-ceramic and metal-metal junctions;
• Metal deposits of Zn, Ni, Cu by electrochemical methods;
• Determination of nanoparticle sizes, granulometric distribution and zorphic potential of colloidal suspensions by DLS and ELS methods;
• Investigation of the optical characteristics of colloidal and nano /micro-powder suspensions by UV-Vis-NIR and FTIR spectrophotometry;
• Determination of tribological properties (coefficient of friction and wear rate) and mechanical (Vickers hardness, Young's modulus, elastic contact stiffness) of thin layers and solid samples with parallel planar surfaces;
• Determination of the critical adhesion /cohesion forces of the thin layers deposited on parts with parallel planar surfaces;
• Investigation of thin layers deposited by PVD techniques on various substrates in terms of coating thickness (films and coatings in the range 100 nm-50 μm) by the "ball cratering" method,
• Investigation of thermal properties of materials (mass variations, formation heat, transformation temperatures, Curie temperature, linear thermal expansion coefficient, thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity);
• Investigation of porous materials - specific surface, pore size and shape using the BET method;
• Investigation of mechanical properties of materials (traction, compression, bending) at 20 ... 500oC;
• Material processing by classical powder metallurgy techniques and by special plasma sintering techniques and hot isostatic pressing;
• Application research correlated with the implementation in the economic domains and production of products (experimental lots and prototypes of sintered contacts for air /vacuum switching) at the request of the industrial companies by employing direct contracts for production on small and medium scale;
• Technical and scientific consultancy in the field.
• Certification of materials and products developed at TRL level 4.
• Dissemination of research results, development of new products, patents and technologies;



• Obtaining new materials with improved properties using ionizing radiation; testing and characterization of polymeric and composite materials;
• Material development and qualification for applications in nuclear environments (nuclear power plants, particle accelerators, industrial irradiation debris);
• Dissemination of research results, development of new products, patents and technologies;
• Technical and scientific consultancy in the field;
• Extending the areas of investigation of various luminescence phenomena and the development of new technologies and techniques of measurement based on such phenomena;
• Continuing the current research activities in the field of degradation and stabilization of the polymeric materials under the influence of different environmental factors; obtaining new materials with properties improved by the use of ionizing radiation; testing and characterization of materials (in particular polymeric);
• Opening of new research directions on obtaining nanostructures such as metal nanoparticles (Ag, Cu, Au, Fe3O4, ZnO, sa), bimetallic alloys, core-shell structures by means of ionizing radiation as a fast, economical, environmentally friendly ) to conventional methods of synthesis. These structures have various applications in optoelectronics, sensory, biomedicine, cultural heritage preservation, photovoltaic cells, hydrogen storage, etc .;
• Performing interdisciplinary research on the compatibility of polymer mixtures by radio-interrelation; radiochemical crosslinking of polymeric materials for the production of shape memory products and high dimensional stability; obtaining biodegradable polymeric composites;
• Application of new techniques for the investigation and analysis of materials based on luminescence phenomena (RTL), chemiluminescence (CL), lioluminescence (LL)) or other physico-chemical effects in complex and complementary fields of material science; characterization of materials by spectroscopic techniques (UV-Vis spectroscopy, IR, Raman, fluorescence, dielectric spectroscopy), gas chromatography (TCD, FID, ECD, MSD), thermal analysis (DSC, RTL, CL);
• Diagnosis of polymer degradation and lifetime evaluation in thermal, photo- and radio-oxidative stress conditions, climatic aging and exposure to UV, field exposure and /or combined stresses;
• Recycling and recovery of polymeric waste processes: recovery of technological waste of polytetrafluoroethylene by processing with ionizing radiation and different classes of polymers through realisations of hybrid compositions;
• Radioprotection and dosimetry of ionizing radiation (elaboration of dosimetric systems of radiotermoluminescent type - MgF2: Mn, MgB4O7: Sm, etc.);
• Study of natural (flavonoid) radioprotectors for overexposure to ionizing radiation (radiotherapy or professional or military over-the-counter);
• Analysis and characterization of synthetic and natural antioxidants;
• Qualification of some landmarks for operation under special conditions (CNE, CERN).



• Nanomaterials: carbon nanotubes, graphite, graphene oxides;
• Development of new materials with potential for use in electromagnetic compatibility applications;
• New or improved materials for components and devices for generating, storing and converting electrical energy (electroactive graphite materials, electrolytes specific for superconductors, transparent conductive thin films for photovoltaic applications, etc.);
• Electrophilic polymeric materials;
• Carbon fiber;
• Carbon fiber reinforced composite materials (CFRP) with special functions;
• Thin absorbent /reflecting layers for electromagnetic waves;
• Nanostructured materials obtained using specific methods of electrical engineering (electrodynamic methods);
• Advanced carbon materials with tribological properties;
• Carbonic materials and composites resistant to thermo-mechanical shock.

Services Carbon Materials Laboratory
• Determination of physical properties of materials for electric machine brushes (determination of volumetric mass, hardness, resistivity, bending resistance characteristic of brush materials, determination of electric contact brush tension on two electric brushes, determination of friction coefficient, determination of ash content for BGR semi- EGR and CDR etc.) according to SR CEI 60413: 1997.
• Determination of the electrical resistance of a filament from a carbon fiber strand by the four probes method;
• Interpretation of X-ray diffraction spectra to identify crystalline phases in solid carbonaceous materials, powders or thin films; determining elementary cell parameters and crystallite size;
• Study and interpretation of microscopic structures of different types of carbon materials in compact, powder or thin layers;
• Characterizations of microporous membranes obtained by electrophilation from polymeric solutions;
• Determination of the critical forces of adhesion /cohesion of thin layers of carbonic materials /carbon-polymer composite thin layers through micro scratches (with ball /pin-on-disk tribometer and compact platform with nano /microindent and micro-scratch mode);
• Measurement of contact angles for carbon /polymer /composite materials;
• Analyzing and interpreting quantitative and qualitative data and information from SEM, Atmospheric (AFM), Thunderbolt (STM), high resolution transmission (HRTEM) and optical microscopy investigations of materials carbon;
• Interpretation of atomic-grade crystalline structure images obtained by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), establishing links between atomic structure and carbon material properties;
• Determination of specific structural characteristics (grain size, proportion and phase distribution, porosity, layer thickness) by quantitative analysis by optical microscopy;
• Increasing carbon nanostructures (carbon nanotubes, graphite) on conductive or semiconductor substrate by chemical vapor deposition;
• Realization of special carbon materials by research on demand.


Research directions

- Development of research in the field of design and characterization of materials and components for electrical engineering: ceramic of aluminous and zirconium type for insulators; ceramic-type ceramic for catalysts and filter elements; static ceramic for insulators, zinc oxide ceramic for accidental transient overvoltage protectors, piezoelectric active elements for low-speed micromotors and large axial loads, etc .;
- Development of research in the field of design and characterization of energy materials and components: insulating ceramic materials, AlN non-oxide ceramics and AlN-SiC, SiC-Si3N4 composites, radiant heating systems, advanced ceramic materials for thin layer SOFCs, ceramic microspheres for thermal insulating materials , etc .;
- Development of research in the field of realization and characterization of materials with special and /or environmental applications: PAH and composite ceramic compounds, heavy metals adsorbents from contaminated environments
- Development of research in the field of biomaterials and biomaterial products: biocompatible ceramic materials based on calcium phosphates (β-TCP, HAP and HAP /TCP composites) for medical applications - orthopedic and maxillo-facial surgery, bone reconstruction (ceramic microspheres and 3D structures);

Expert Directions

- Processing of ceramic materials by conventional and unconventional techniques that address the fields of electrical engineering, energy, environment, medical applications, etc .;
- Materials and techniques for ceramic coatings: Ceramic ceramic targets (calcium phosphates, ZnO, PZT, modified PZT, modified PT) for techniques such as PLD, magnetron-sputtering;
- Ceramic parts (pressing, extrusion, injection molding);
- Thermal treatment of ceramic parts services in electric furnaces or the SPS technique;
- Consultancy in the field of ceramic materials and technologies.


Laboratory of Physical and Chemical Characterization

The specific field of activity of the Physical and Chemical Characterization Laboratory of the consists of knowledge transfer, characterization and testing of different types of materials / products in close connection with the materials science and engineering research field:
- Investigations on the chemical composition of materials: atomic absorption spectrometry, laser ablation mass spectrometry; WD XRF, EDS;
- Structural investigations: X-ray and electron diffractometry - SAED, optical microscopy, SEM, TEM / HRTEM;
- Surface properties study: Scanning probe microscopy -AFM, MFM, STM;
- Physico-mechanical tests: density, Vickers and Knoop microhardness, Vickers and Brinell hardness;

Laboratory of evaluation of products and materials thermal behaviour by thermal analysis

The specific field of activity of the laboratory is the determination of thermal behavior of the solid state products and materials by following methods:
- Thermogravimetric analysis, TG
- Derivative termogravimetry, DTG
- Differential scanning analysis, DSC
- Differential thermal analysis, DTA
- Dilatometry
- Dynamic mechanical analysis, DMA



- Research on the development, design and testing of electrical machines with permanent magnets;
- Promoting, designing and testing electrical machines with high rotation speeds (over 50,000 rpm);
- Studying the design, execution and testing of electrical power generating systems with high rotating electric machines;
- Research, development, design and testing of new transverse geometries of electric machines;
- Studying the possibilities of using new electrotechnical materials, with improved characteristics, in order to increase the efficiency of conversion of electromechanical energy;
- Design, execution, technology transfer and testing of road electric vehicle driving systems;
- New applications of soft magnetic materials in electric machines, transformers, altenators, inductors etc .;
- Providing services to potential beneficiaries: renewable energy sources, testing of electric cars on dedicated stands, preparation of test bulletins, provision of solutions and technological transfers in the field of electrical machinery



- analytical calculation and numerical simulations (COMSOL, SolidWorks, MATLAB software) for determining and optimizing the parameters and geometry of the magnetic circuit and the coils that equip normal conductors electromagnets;
- 3D modeling and execution of execution documentation (SolidWorks software);
- preparation for manufacture;
- components and subassemblies and final assembly;
- mechanical testing (XOrbit coordinate measuring machine), hydraulic, electrical and magnetic (with Hall probe and rotating coils).


- making microelectromechanical components using LIGA technology using UV laser lithography (DWL 66 FS equipment) and photoresist removal (STP 2020 equipment);
- excimer laser ablation (COMPex Pro 205 F);
- precision microprocessing on CNC turning and milling (OKUMA, KERN, TOPPER, DIAMOND);
- cylindrical windings (winding machine TAK-01) and toroidal (winding machine SMC-1);
- wired electroerosion (KNUTH equipment) and solid electrode (ZNC 210 equipment);
- fast prototyping through 3D printing (3D STRATASYS FORTUS 360 printer).


- dynamic behavior analysis and vibration diagnosis (VIBROPORT equipment);
- vibration measurement and monitoring (SOUNDBOOK equipment);
- noise level measurement (ACOUSTI CAM equipment);
- 3D optical scanning (ATOS and TRITOP equipment);
- kinematic and dynamic analysis (PONTOS equipment);
- precision mechanical measurements (XOrbit coordinate measuring machine);
- optical interferometry for MEMS and NEMS (WYKO NT1100 and AGILENT system).



Head of Laboratory: Dr. eng. Lucian Pîslaru-Dănescu

Research directions
A. Sensors

1. Combustible, toxic gases, volatile organic compounds, semiconductor, electrochemical, surface acoustic wave, optical made by thin and thick layer technology;
2. Relative air humidity, resistive and capacitive polymeric sensors;
3. Piezoelectric sensors for continuous dynamic viscosity measurement;
4. Medical sensors (cardiology - ECG, breathing, temperature, pH, conductivity) tactile, made on flexible substrates;
5. Linear and angular position sensors;
6. Sensors for detecting heavy metals in wastewater: Cu, Cd, Ni, Hg, Pb;
July. Resistivity sensors of reinforced concrete structures;
8. Optical fiber sensors.

B. Actual
1. Piezoceramic, magnetostrictive, electroshock and electromagnetic actuators;
2. Nonconventional micromotors and microgenerators, made on electromagnetic, piezoelectric, magnetostrictive principles and combinations thereof.
3. Laboratories on CIP;
4. Actuators made with superconducting coils for applications in the field of electrical switching devices.

C. Dispositive type of energy harvesting using residual energy sources from the environment:
1. Sources of natural or artificial light - with the production of photovoltaic cells with oxide or polymeric photosensitive material;
2. Thermal sources with thermoelectric generators, including storage of thermal energy;
3. Mechanical sources, eg vibrations with electromagnetic, electrostatic and piezoelectric energy conversion transducers;
4. Dispositive type of energy harvesting using the energy of electromagnetic waves, captured by "Rectenna" antennas.

D. Synthesis of magnetic nanofluids for applications in electrical engineering
1. Nanofluids with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for electrical engineering applications: thermal transfer - as a cooling agent for transformers, insulators and microchips, magnetic micropump pumps for magnetic nanofluids, biomedical applications - drug delivery, and microactuation systems.

E. Applied Electronics
1. Microelectronics for electronically conditioning the signals provided by sensor sensors;
2. Electronic control for actuators and micrometers;
3. DC /DC converters for power harvesting devices;
4. Applied electronics for superconducting coil protection: "quench protection" devices;
5. Parameterization of software and frequency inverters.

Applied Superconductivity and Cryogenics in Electrical Engineering Laboratory – LASCIE

Head of Laboratory: Dr. eng. Ion Dobrin
Research, design, implementation and testing of superconductivity applications in electrical engineering:
- Design and testing of superconducting electrical machines: motors and generators.
- Design and testing of superconducting windings both in plane technology-2D and 3D, for particle accelerators and superconducting electric machines.
- Design and testing of superconducting electromagnets for intense magnetic fields generation (> 2T), for industry, nuclear physics and particle accelerators;
• Control and measurement of low temperatures in the range of 4.2 to 300 K by using cryogenic fluids and closed loop cryocoolers type Gifford-McMahon or Pulse-tube.
• Design, realization and testing of cryogenic cooling systems for superconducting electrical machines and superconducting electromagnets with both cryogenic fluids and closed loop cryocoolers (Gifford-McMahon or Pulse-tube).
• Measurement of thermal, electric and magnetic properties at low temperatures (2-400K) for materials used in electrical engineering including superconductors;
• Research and development of new applications of superconductivity in electrical engineering: magnetic storage of energy, fault current limiters, a.c. applications of the HTS superconductors.


Research Areas /Research Areas

• Active and passive nanostructures: Gas sensors for flammable and toxic systems based on SiC;
• Carbon sensors for agricultural applications (pesticide /fertilizer detectors); mobile pesticide detection systems;
• Energy conversion and storage (development of nanostructured hybrids for supercapacitors and batteries);
• Purification /purification technologies /industrial water, capacitive desalination of seawater;
• Catalytic /photocatalysis: development of catalysts for environmental applications;


Expertise /Research Directions

- Research and development activities in the field of energy recovery of biodegradable waste, wastewater, agricultural residues and industrial organic waste for the production of biogas and biofuels;
- Chemical and microbiological analyzes of organic sludge, wastewater and fermentation gases to monitor anaerobic fermentation processes in laboratory or industrial bioreactors;
- Research to stimulate microbial activity in biochemical processes, to assess the influence of environmental factors and operational parameters on the quality of biogas generated, experiments on increasing energy efficiency in biogas systems;
- Attempts to evaluate the resistance of materials (textiles, leather, plastics, polymers) to mold action;
- Research on the isolation and identification of species of microorganisms involved in biodegradation of heritage assets;
- Research on the action of soil microorganisms on pipe corrosion;
- Research on antifungal potential testing of various materials (mineral oils, silver colloidal solutions);
- Research on the electromagnetic field action on the living cell.

The Electrochemistry Laboratory

Expert /Research Directions

- Develop, characterize and implement new technological solutions for Li-ion, Na-ion and redox batteries (with various ionic couples) for mobile and stationary applications. (- type I and II Li-ion batteries, Na-ion batteries, redox-flow batteries (cheap and non-toxic electrolytes), modified electrodes (3D carbon dioxide structures, PEO oxidation, DLC etc.), non-activated electrolytes, rolled supercapacitors, catalysing in fuel cell systems
- Corrosion and corrosion protection
- Supercapacitors
- Electrochemical sensors
- Production of clean water (electrocoagulation, capacitive deionization, etc.).